See Shipping for details! With 36 of the original parameters accessible from the front panel, the JP-08 is all about hands-on control, and even users of the JUPITER-8 will quickly feel at home as the user interface and programming ‘feel’ is highly reminiscent of the original.
Within each body region, three successive tape-strip samples were taken from a single site using Cover-Roll™ tape precut to size 4 cm × 2.5 cm (Beiersdorf AG, Germany). For this reason the flux of DIEGME was estimated from the first 2 h of the experiment. Provides an overview of key features, functions and operational tips. We conclude that the fuel-cell workers investigated here had extensive dermal exposure to JP-8 and thus, action may be required to minimize exposure and potential health effects. The tape-strip technique has been described in detail elsewhere (Chao and Nylander-French, 2004; Mattorano et al., 2004). Assessing risks from systemic absorption of hydrocarbon components is complex because most of the components are present in the mixture in small quantities (less than 1%). This channel provides information of the Roland's best quality electronic musical instruments. The time course of each individual component was very similar to the JP-8 time course shown in Figure 4. Transistors. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (1996). Although 339 USAF personnel subjects enrolled in the overall USAF project, a total of 124 subjects were recruited with informed consent into this dermal exposure study. Mil-T-83133d. Significantly different from the job titles 5, 6 and 7 (for all P < 0.0148). The tape was folded and placed into a labeled scintillation vial containing 5 ml acetone and 20 µl of 25 µg ml−1 naphthalene-d8 (internal standard). JP-8 has been recognized as a major source of chemical exposure for fuel-cell maintenance workers (ATSDR, 1998; Carlton and Smith, 2000). Carrying bag for one Roland Boutique module. In both cases, the high-exposure group had significantly higher exposure than the medium- or low-exposure group (P < 0.0001) and no significant difference was observed between the medium- and low-exposure groups. Six components (all aliphatic) were identified in the skin. Furthermore, the results of this study as well as our laboratory experiments (Chao and Nylander-French, 2004) have shown that JP-8 components penetrate into the skin rapidly with minimum evaporation from the skin surface. With this approach, we were able to correlate dermal exposure estimates with four significant predictors (skin irritation, use of booties, work inside the tank and exposure time) in the linear regression models. Jet propellant-8 (JP-8) jet fuel is a version of commercial jet fuel, Jet A, and is a complex mixture of primarily aliphatic (but also aromatic) hydrocarbons that varies in composition from batch to batch. A Revolutionary New Tone Experience for Guitar. Reduced volatility of JP-8 compared to JP-4 decreases inhalation exposure because air concentrations are lower. The regression models used indicated that the dermal exposure estimates were highly correlated with a potential health risk (skin irritation), protection control (use of booties), work situation (work inside the fuel tank) and the exposure duration. The oven-temperature program was 80°C for the initial temperature, followed by an increase of 3°C per minute until reaching 217°C. The response variable was regressed on each independent variable separately to eliminate unlikely predictors (P < 0.25). SY-1000. Hands and arms were the most frequently exposed and hence, the most sampled regions, accounting for 70.5% of all sampled regions (Table 1). The composition of JP-8 batches is continuously variable because the specification is based primarily on performance characteristics rather than chemical composition. The authors wish to thank Sergeant Robert Davis for his excellent technical assistance, including the operation of the diffusion cells and collection of the samples.
Roland Global Official Fan Page. Contact of the hands with JP-8 for 8 h would be expected to give a body burden of about 4 orders of magnitude less than the body burden at the inhalation exposure limit. JP-4, the previous jet fuel, was about 50–60% gasoline and the rest was kerosene (USAF, 1996). The mechanisms of some of these effects have been investigated in intact skin and cultured skin cells. Additionally, there is concern about systemic toxicity from dermal exposures to jet fuels, such as JP-8. (, Smith LB, Bhattacharya A, Lemasters G et al. They can also be used for fueling land vehicles and as a fuel source for heaters and lights. Support - Updates & Drivers. (, Serdar B, Egeghy PP, Waidyanatha S et al. The JP-08 features a chain mode that allows you to connect two JP-08 modules using the MIDI ports and create one, 8-voice synthesizer, just like the original. Both aerosol and liquid forms of JP-8 have the potential to cause local and systemic effects with prolonged or repeated skin contact. Jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) is the major fuel used by the US Air Force (USAF) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The purpose of this manuscript is to review studies of local and systemic toxicity of JP-8. The observed non-significant covariates included personal demographics (age, gender, weight, height, race), job-related factors (primary job, purpose of work and tasks performed, e.g. The A-88MKII is supremely playable, with onboard creative tools for today's musicians and producers. Peter Robinson (AFRL/HEST) and Tim Roy (Petrotech, Inc.) for reviewing the manuscript prior to submission. Exposures to JP-8 can occur from vapor, liquid, or aerosol. Adding additional modules adds another 4 voices of polyphony with each module. The purpose of this investigation was to measure the absorption and penetration of JP-8 and its major constituents, with rodent skin, in order to assess the potential for deleterious effects with human exposures. CRC Press, Boca Raton. And if there’s no keyboard connected, the ribbon controller lets you preview the sound, making it an ideal way to program patches quickly and easily. Nessel and coworkers (1999) suggest that prolonged irritation is necessary for tumor formation. Permeability coefficients (distance/time) from JP-8 were estimated according to Bond and Barry (1988) for each component by dividing individual fluxes by the concentration of the component in JP-8. Baker, W., Dodd, D., McDougal, J., and Miller T. (1999). Despite the increasing number of studies conducted on JP-8, none of them has focused on quantification and assessment of dermal exposure to JP-8 on humans. Inhalation and dermal exposure are the most prevalent routes. The column oven temperature was programmed to hold at 50°C for 5 min and then increase at 5°C/min to 190°C. In The Irritant Contact Dermatitis Syndrome, (P. G. M. van der Valk and H. I. Maibach, Eds. Repair Stories for more info on cleaning contact strips. (F. N. Marzulli and H. I. Maibach, Eds. A one-way analysis of variance was used to investigate differences in dermal exposure to naphthalene between different exposure groups, job titles, use of personal protective equipment (respirator, cotton overalls and booties) or smoking status. This approach allows the determination of the quantity of JP-8 retained in the upper layers of the stratum corneum following exposure, thus providing a measure of absorbed dermal dose available for metabolism and systemic circulation. This 4-Note contact strip fits the lowest four notes (A, A#, B, C) of Freeman, J. J., Federici, T. M., and McKee, R. H. (, Freeman, J. J., McKee, R. H., Phillips, R. D., Plutnick, R. T., Scala, R. A., and Ackerman, L. J. Concentrations of control-skin samples were subtracted from each sample to account for the amount of JP-8 that could not be removed from the surface of the skin. Abu Dhabi head office. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS system software (V.8.1, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA) at a significance level of 0.05. Jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) is the major fuel used by the US Air Force (USAF) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Spark creativity with in-depth writing on people, trends, tech, and history. Thus, if the naphthalene recovery in the first tape-strip sample was below LOD, the second and third tape-strips from the same site were not analyzed. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Significantly different from the medium- and low-exposure group (for both P < 0.0001). (, 1Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Public Health, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB #7431, Rosenau Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7431, USA; 2Armed Forces Epidemiological Board, Department of Defense, Falls Church, VA, USA, Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Here we have shown that this approach can be used to measure dermal exposure to JP-8 in an occupational exposure setting. Hydrocarbon components were quantified as the proportion of the overall response, after confirming that flame ionization detection responds linearly to changes in the mass of unsubstituted hydrocarbons. 1) around the receptor cells. MA Business Ltd, St Jude's Church, Dulwich Road, London, SE24 0PB , a company registered in England and Wales no.
the keyboards in the above table. The median time between the end of work and sampling was 28 min (mean and standard deviation 41 ± 31 min). The gasoline fraction has a lower average molecular weight than kerosene.
Anyone who entered a fuel tank, regardless of any other additional jobs performed, was classified into the high-exposure category. We have previously shown that dermal JP-8 exposure, using naphthalene as a marker, can be measured by the tape-strip technique, which removes the upper layers of the stratum corneum, when coupled with GC–MS analysis (Chao and Nylander-French, 2004; Mattorano et al., 2004). Chemicals enter into (absorption) and pass through (penetration) the skin based on their chemical characteristics (Dugard and Scott, 1984a; Flynn, 1990; Scheuplein and Blank, 1971). Fax: (937) 255-1474. Of all subjects, 116 were male (93.5%), 107 were Caucasians (86.3%), 53 were smokers (42.7%) and 62 complained about skin irritation owing to contact with JP-8 (50.0%).
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